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Introduction To CSS.

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CSS Is the abbreviation of Cascading Style Sheets. This is used to define how HTML elements will display in a browser. There are 3 ways to add Styles into an HTML document.

  1. Style can be added into the head section of an HTML document.
  2. Style can be added inside HTML element as an In-Line-Style.
  3. Style can be created as an external file style.css and be applied to bunch of pages dynamically.

Browsers, Markups, And CSS.

HTML. XHTML. and or HTML5 are mainly responsible for structuring the contents of documents in a website.

There are no exact restrictions on how a browser should display an element used in any of these markup languages.

Every browser has a default format it uses to display HTML documents. However, this varies from browser to browser, and therefore, causes document layouts to differ from each other.

Partially, elements in HTML could be formatted using HTML attributes to a limit.

For this reason, CSS comes in place. It's used as an extension for HTML, and other markup languages to format their elements, layout, and so on, to a very high desire of every webmaster.

Five Reasons To Use CSS.

Well, it's everyone's right to do what they like to do and how they prefer doing things.

It's quite possible to use only HTML to create and format website's elements, and layouts completely as said. However, using CSS to push the capability of HTML is nowadays very essential.

The followings are five serious reasons why one must always use HTML in combination with CSS.

  1. CSS is the best alternative to use in the place of deprecated HTML attributes.
  2. You might have a website with a large amount of pages. And will want to make a change to, the Logo that appears on the entire website. Using an external CSS file, will enable you hold control of all the pages instantly, by just changing a line of a code to make this happen dynamically.
  3. CSS makes it possible to match your presentation to different types of devices like Printers, Wide screens, Small screens, and much more.
  4. Using CSS helps browsers to easily understand, and render website elements quickly, which is much necessary for user friendliness.
  5. CSS is an Independent language that could be use along side most markup languages.


CSS 1 was created by Hakon Wium Lie and Bas Bos and was officially Recommended and published in December 17, 1996 by the W3C.


CSS 2 followed in may 1998 which was developed and published by the W3C.

This was a complete update of CSS 1 including some new features like z-inedx, and the positioning values like absolute, relative and fixed, also was addhere the concept of media types and the new font properties like shadow and more.

CSS 2.1

CSS 2.1 was error fixes in css 2, removal of poorly supported fetures, and addition of already implemented browser extensions.

It became first a candidate recommendation on the 25. 02. 2004 and went back into working draft so many times.

It was again placed on proposed recommendation on the 12. 04.2014.

And was finally published as a W3C Recommendation on 7 June 2011 after being strictly reviewed by the W3C Advisory commitee.


The first CSS 3 drafts were published in June 1999.

CSS 3 is divided into several separate documents called "modules

Each module adds new capabilities or extends features defined in CSS 2, preserving backward compatibility.

Due to the modularization, different modules have different stability and statuses.

As of June 2012, there are over fifty CSS modules published from the CSS Working Group.

And four of these have been published as formal recommendations.

Introduction To CSS.


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